Week 8 Tasks
1) Investigate the notion of ‘inductive’ vs ‘deductive’ data analysis
2) Read https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/build-sentiment-score-chart/
3) Drawing on the above, and/or other methods of analyzing qualitative data, analyze the round 1 Norwich Market user research data.
4) Drawing on your data analysis, develop questions for round 2 of Norwich Market user research activity. Questions should still be domain-related and open-ended but allow you to test or consolidate patterns that you detect in the data from round 1.
5) Finalize your 1000 word discussion of ethnographic user research methods relevant to your discipline, using quotations, citations, and references where applicable. This is the task set last week and is about the topic in general, not related to the Norwich Market exercise.
6) Reflect upon your experience of conducting user research into Norwich Market, suggested word count 500-1000. Note that this task cannot be completed until you have conducted and analyzed the second survey.
Inductive vs Deductive Data Analysis
Inductive and Deductive Data Analysis are two different approaches. Researchers often come up with theories and hypothesis and inform sociological research. The theory is crucial and important, and research often becomes evident to those who seek it. It’s also a necessity to consider the relationships between theory and research in inductive and deductive approaches. They differ for each approach.
However, just because the approaches differ, it does not mean they cannot also help each other.
In an Inductive mode to research, the user begins by collating data that is relevant to the topic of interest. Upon achieving the appropriate amount of data, the user will sit back and take a look from a further distance. At this point, the researcher will look for common connections and patterns in this containment of data. Work is then continued to describe and realize as to what explains those patterns, a theory.
By taking an inductive approach, the researcher who is conducting this analysis will come up with observations and then they move from those particular experiences to a more generic set of potential propositions about those experiences. This means they move from looking at the data to constructing a reasonable theory.
Advantages of Inductive Research
- Inductive reasoning allows you to be wrong, it is only through more observation that you determine whether your premises are true.
- Inductive reasoning lies in establishing probability. You might observe that when it is very cloudy there is rain. Pure inductive reasoning would say that means it will on all cloudy days.
Disadvantages of Inductive Research
- Cannot guarantee it’s conclusions.
- Relies on observation for information collection.
- Induction fails whenever your information is incomplete and your sample of it is not sufficiently representative.
On the contrary, when a researcher takes a deductive approach. The steps are similar to inductive, however, you just reverse the steps. They begin with a social theory that they find strong and convincing. Afterward, testing is conducted to see the relevance of it with their data. Further on, a deductive approach is concerned with a hypothesis that correlates or is based on a existing theory, from there, you would design a research strategy to test the hypothesis.
The deduction approach begins with an expected pattern that is tested against observations, whereas induction begins with observations and seeks to find a pattern within them.
Advantages of Deductive Research
- Possibility to explain causal relationships between concepts and variables.
- Measure concepts quantitatively.
- Potentially to generalize research findings to a certain extent.
Norwich Market Survey Part 1
On Friday, the 11th of November, I went out to the Norwich market with my colleagues to conduct the survey with the questions we had set. The questions we came up with together through a process of discussion and practice with Jamie and my colleagues were as follows:
1) Are you familiar with Norwich market? Are you planning on visiting at all? 2) What do you think about Norwich Market? /How do you feel about Norwich Maret? /Like most about the market? 3) What do you do at the Market? /What do you enjoy doing at the market? 4) Would you use a digital app or service to complete the tasks? 5) Is there anything you would add or change to the market? /What improvement would help you to enjoy
Here are a few pictures that I took highlighting the process and showing our activities of research:
Image demonstrating the best way to put these questions in order for the flow of conversating with the person being surveyed.
The process of writing potential questions down and then shortlisting the best.
I thought the process was rather fun and interesting because I was able to collate and understand how questions can be structured for the survey and how they can be improved. The enlightenment and insights that I received through the process were great and it simply allowed me to consume more knowledge in the research field, should I feel the need to apply this experience somewhere else in the future.
Results from the Survey
The results from the survey were interesting and here I have analyzed the information and then broke it down into a table to make it more perceptible and easier to understand.
The initial question before the survey actually begun, we asked people if they were local or visitors. This is because that will help us determine the common levels of visitors if there’s a lot or a few of them, and if they are local.
Results from question 1:
The results from question 1 were a variety. Some people came to the market on a daily basis, some monthly, some once/twice a week, some occasionally, and some have said they visit or visited without a mention of how frequently they do so.
A few of the people who stated they visit daily is because they buy food. Here’s a quote of this.
“Daily, always buy food from the market.”
People who didn’t visit as frequent were local people and visitors. A few individuals simply didn’t buy as many products from the market and so they felt they had no desire to do so, no need.
Here’s a response from a user who was originally from Ipswitch and thought the Norwich Market is a lot nicer than Ipswitch’s. Assuming that’s what the user intended to imply
“Yes, I have visited before. I’m originally from Ipswich and this market is a lot nicer.”
Results from question 2:
The results from this question were rather expected, especially when people thought that the market needs tidying, not accessible, and it’s small. On the contrary, people thought it was a great community and it had a nice atmosphere. The diversity of products and food options is also great.
The reason as to why I expected those negatives or the needs to improve, it’s because I felt the same way and still do. On the opposite though, I personally like the market very much.
Results from question 3:
Due to the market being heavily food based, it is no wonder that most people go there to buy food. A lot have mentioned they enjoy the food and its diverse range of options.
“Like the Asian fish shop, like the seafood (culturally diversity)”
” like to grab a casual bite to eat such as a bag or chips etc. I also like to visit the hardware store.”
Further on, some people simply like to observe others walking around, taking breaks, and meeting others.
“Take breaks, observe, meet bikers”
The people who said they buy food covers the following:
- Fruits & Vegetables
- Lunch & hot food
- Other kinds of food, e.g Cheese
A few people visit the market to simply access and use the toilet. Those who didn’t buy food had reasons such as the food is too expensive or they simply didn’t like the wide range of foreign food. Which I think is quite a bias statement to say, because diversity allows people to have options and the ability to explore. In other words, benefiting people and the market.
“I’d rather go to other shops because I think the market is expensive.
On the opposite, some people appreciated diversity very much.
“I have not visited in a while but diversity is key. It’s very positive.”
Results from question 4:
I’m not 100% sure why most people voted no in regards to using a digital app or service to complete these tasks. I personally thought it would just be another feature available, while everyone else would continue how they do their tasks in whatever way it suits them.
However, there are people who don’t buy online or never buy online at all.
“No – dislike Apple – like the pure feeling of the market”
“No – doesn’t shop online at all”
“No. I mainly only use technology for banking. Things that I NEED.”
This is very interesting because there is also an individual who said it’s better to go and actually be there. Some thought it would instead be a waste of time and it would ruin the charm of the market, which I personally think is possible indeed.
Those who said yes are people who would use a digital app if it would help them with navigating. They would also use it if it did exist. So there’s quite a diverse range of answers here. In other words, as long as it actually helps with the shopping experience in the market, they would have the interest of using the app or digital service.
People come to the market themselves mainly for the experience, which is why there’s a high amount of no’s in regards to using a digital app or service to complete their tasks.
Results from question 5:
The results of this question are filled with diversity. Navigation of the market definitely needs improvement because of people struggling with finding the stalls or foods they want, some people also struggle with leaving that area.
“Make it easier to navigate and make it less crowded at lunch”
People also wanted more eating space, more decorations, and visuals that would help with navigating and making the market look even prettier. The eating space issue is existing because there are people and me who sometimes struggle to find anywhere to sit.
A few suggested to also increase the size of the market to allow more stalls and more businesses to open, although realistically speaking, I’m not sure that would be possible. But the other issues can definitely be addressed.
Those who said they didn’t think there could be any more changes have said the following:
“No, it’s already really diverse.”
“No. diverse too far away from name to not regularly.”
“No, it’s already very diverse. It too far away from home to visit regularly and have an opinion on this.”
There’s also not enough bins for people to dispose of their used material. Which is actually a problem that I have experienced myself as well. They should put more bins around the area instead of having to walk close to Tesco to dispose of our used materials.
“More recycle bins!!!”
I personally do not look forward to round 2 of this survey. I struggled very much to get people to answer my survey and so I could barely receive 3 responses. However, I will not be hard on myself about it because it put me out of my comfort zone and allowed me to feel like a researcher. It’s also a lot harder than I thought it was to approach people and randomly ask them if they are willing to take part in a short survey.
Most people come to the market with a mission and a goal already in mind, so it’s highly unlikely that they would wanna take part in a survey, especially with no incentive in return for their time. It’s the year 2018, and most companies/businesses conduct surveys/questionnaires using social media. If they were to find people, they also pay people very well for their time.
This puts people at awkward positions, like me to conduct a survey on people without giving them anything in return. Regardless, I think I learned many things from this process so far.
2012books.lardbucket.org. (2018). Inductive or Deductive? Two Different Approaches. [online] Available at: https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/sociological-inquiry-principles-qualitative-and-quantitative-methods/s05-03-inductive-or-deductive-two-dif.html [Accessed 10 Nov. 2018].
Research-Methodology. (2018). Inductive Approach (Inductive Reasoning) – Research-Methodology. [online] Available at: http://research-methodology.net/research-methodology/research-approach/inductive-approach-2/ [Accessed 10 Nov. 2018].
Deductive Approach (Deductive Reasoning) – Research-Methodology. [online] Available at: https://research-methodology.net/research-methodology/research-approach/deductive-approach-2/ [Accessed 10 Nov. 2018].
Howandwhat.net. (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.howandwhat.net/differences-deductive-inductive/ [Accessed 11 Nov. 2018].